Download Full PDF Package. [11] This marked the beginning of the New Kingdom. Even if the horse-drawn chariot did follow through and attempt to break the enemy's lines would have been a terrible idea if they were using the lighter Bronze Age type war chariots. The garrison troops overseer ran an entire garrison. They also had chariots which they used to charge at the enemy. Ancient Egypt. They sacked Memphis which was then the capital and seized control of the country. These were preferred to pebbles because of their greater weight which made them more effective. Ancient Egypt, with its pharaohs, pyramids, hieroglyphics, and mummies, is a subject that never fails to enthrall students. //--> Download PDF. i actually found a good site that could help me with my school project. Therefore, they constructed a powerful military system. The major advance in weapons technology and warfare began around 1600 BC when the Egyptians fought and finally defeated the Hyksos people who had made themselves lords of Lower Egypt. His son and successor, Mentuhotep continued consolidating Egypt under Theban control. This paper. This recognized division started as early as the Unification period in Egypt in the Proto-dynastic period (Faulkner). The Egyptians then improved the design of the chariot to suit their own requirements. During the archaic period (3100 BC – 2686 BC), soldiers were equipped with stone maces, copper-tipped spears and bows with flint or obsidian arrows. Egypt was conquered by a succession of foreign powers in the late period, and the rule of the pharaohs officially ended in 31  BC, when the early Roman Empire conquered Egypt and made it a province. The maximum draw length was that of the archer's arm. Its offensive power was in its capacity to rapidly turn, wheel and repeatedly charge, penetrating the enemy line and functioning as a mobile firing platform that afforded the fighting crewmen the opportunity to shoot many arrows from the composite bow. Cite this page Twenty-two years later, he reunited Upper and Lower Egypt into a single kingdom. b+='@' [8], The major advance in weapons technology and warfare began around 1600 BC when the Egyptians fought and finally defeated the Hyksos people who had made themselves lords of Lower Egypt. The spear was used in Egypt since the earliest times for hunting larger animals, such as lions. 24 Full PDFs related to this paper. As a result, they were not used as much as one might expect. Their chariots were light in construction, as opposed to those of the Hittites, whose were heavy (Carney). The spear was appreciated enough to be depicted in the hands of Ramesses III killing a Libyan. Slings, throw sticks, spears, and javelins were used, but the bow and arrow was the primary projectile weapon for most of Egypt's history. Egyptian Warfare is a very fun subject to research because there are so many topics and details in it. During this period, most military conflict was limited to the consolidation of power within Egypt. The Egyptians wore little body armour and had a simple shield to protect them. else d=b Composite bows needed more care than simple basic bows, and were much more difficult and expensive to produce. During the New Kingdom the composite bow came into use, having been introduced by the Asiatic Hyksos. They would then be further divided into four more armies named after the Egyptian god's Ra, Amen, Ptah, Sutekh (of all the armies the Pharaoh would align himself with Amen). During later dynasties, such as the 18th dynasty, it was the most common military standard symbol—particularly under the reign of Queen Hatshepsut. The generals reported to the Pharaoh. [34] Egyptian troops were transported by naval vessels as early as the Late Old Kingdom. [20] There were also companies of Libyans, Nubians, Canaanite and Sherdens (Greeks) who served in the Egyptian army. © Deror avi - Warship Model (based on an Egyptian ship from the reign of Ramses III). The next leap forward came in the Late Period (712–332 BC), when mounted troops and weapons made of iron came into use. Egypt continued to exist as an independent country until 332 BC when it was conquered by Alexander the Great. On the other hand, arrows were much easier to mass-produce. The Ancient Egyptians were known to use siege warfare weapons such as battering rams and siege towers. [6] The Egyptians then improved the design of the chariot to suit their own requirements. Chariots also had infantry support. The Old Kingdom was one of the greatest times in Egypt's history. Most of the Egyptians were intent on using this weapon for it had a holy effect as well. b+='' A short summary of this paper. Because of its greater weight, the spear was better at penetration than the arrow, but in a region where armour consisted mostly of shields, this was only a slight advantage. The history of ancient Egypt is divided into three kingdoms and two intermediate periods. The size of the arrows were .801 to .851 meters or 31.5 to 33.5 inches. The composite bow was a superior weapon to the single-arched bow, for it provided greater accuracy and could kill from a greater distance. By the end of the First Intermediate Period, two dominant dynasties had emerged: the Heracleopolitan kings in Lower Egypt and the Theban kings in Upper Egypt. The New Kingdom (1570 BC – 1070 BC) was a time of disruptive change for Egypt’s military forces. It relied on the impact the missile made and like most impact weapons was relegated to play a subsidiary role. [6] Then, all the armies would come together under the Pharaoh to battle. During the New Kingdom, it was often an auxiliary weapon of the charioteers, who were thus not left unarmed after spending all their arrows. Ancient Egyptian Warfare and Weapons. From there he would pick a commander in chief, generally princes of the royal house who would then pick captains to enforce orders given down the chain of command. Charioteers sometimes wore scale armor, but many carried shields or wore leather bands across their chests. [32], Chariots are best defined as horsedrawn vehicles with two spoked wheels that require their drivers and passengers to stand whilst in motion’ (Archer 1). Melee weapons used: clubs and maces, axe, knives, swords and daggers. Sinew was added to the back of the bow, to withstand the tension. The civilization coalesced around 3150 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the first pharaoh, and it developed over the next three millennia. There are four types of arrow that are further categorized under two groups: stone heads, which consisted of the chisel-ended and leaf shaped, and the wooden heads under which the pointed and blunt or flaring arrows have been categorized.[39]. The core of the Egyptian army, like most ancient … When lead became more widely available during the Late Period, sling bullets were cast. Secondary to the bow and arrow in battle, the sling was rarely depicted. The bow and arrow is one of ancient Egypt's most crucial weapons, used from Predynastic times through the Dynastic age and into the Christian and Islamic periods. They were more vulnerable to moisture, requiring them to be covered. Chariots were generally used as a mobile platform from which to use projectile weapons, and were generally pulled by two horses[30] and manned by two charioteers; a driver who carried a shield, and a man with a bow or javelin. The Sea Peoples caused many problems, but ultimately the military was strong enough at this time to prevent a collapse of the government. f='Contact' Ancient Egypt was an ancient civilization of eastern North Africa, concentrated along the northern reaches of the Nile River in Egypt. All these layers were glued together and covered with birch bark. By the beginning of the Dynastic Period, bows were made of wood. Soldiers were protected by large wooden shields and didn’t wear armor due to the desert heat. They used chariots and composite bows, and the Egyptian soldiers soon adopted these for their own use. By this time, many soldiers were actually derived from specific warrior castes, which in turn hints at a societal solution for a professional (or at least semi-professional) army. a='